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MOSQUITOES CARE

MOSQUITOES CARE
MOSQUITOES CARE
MOSQUITOES CARE
MOSQUITOES CARE

PEST COVERED – MOSQUITOES

About Mosquitoes: - Mosquitoes are the most significant & dangerous vector of disease in history and responsible for more human deaths than any other animal. Mosquitoes are well adapted for urban life and are a common nuisance pest in residential backyards. In recent years, the media has significantly increased the public’s mosquito awareness due to West Nile virus, Zika virus and encephalitis outbreaks

Mode of Treatment- The treatment comprises of thorough Spraying of insecticides in the manholes, waste water drain, service shafts, lift

1. Mosquitoes care service

Pest Covered – Mosquitoes

About Mosquitoes: - Mosquitoes are the most significant & dangerous vector of disease in history and responsible for more human deaths than any other animal. Mosquitoes are well adapted for urban life and are a common nuisance pest in residential backyards. In recent years, the media has significantly increased the public’s mosquito awareness due to West Nile virus, Zika virus and encephalitis outbreaks

Mode of Treatment- The treatment comprises of thorough

Spraying of insecticides in the manholes, waste water drain, service shafts, lift

Mosquito species

Places of breeding

Diseases caused

 

 

 

Anopheles spp.

prefers clean water for breeding

Malaria

Aedes spp.

Breeds in artificial containers

Yellow fever, Dengue, Chikangunya

Culex spp.

Breeds in sewage / dirty water

Encephalitis

The detail survey of the premises will be carried out to find of the breeding sources and report will be submitted

Potential Breeding Sources

1 Scrap Material                    2 Open Nalas,

3 Sewerage                           4 Drains

1. Larviciding Treatment – Mosquitoes breed in stagnant water such as clogged storm water drains, septic tanks and other water stagnant areas. These should be identified in the immediate surroundings. Suitable larvicide is applied on the surface of the stagnant water depending upon type of water that is clean or dirty water.

2. Adulticiding Treatment  

Indoor residual spray – Mosquitoes present inside the society (lobby, external periphery, and compound) area are controlled by treating wall surfaces in the corridors, staircase with odorless spray.

Thermal Fogging – Thermal fogging is the effective method to keep away the adult mosquitoes. Fogging is carried out during dusk hours in immediate surroundings of the building to control adult mosquitoes.

Service Differentiators

  • Environment friendly and human safe chemicals
  • Fast Response Time
  • Client Awareness / Education
  • Free Initial Risk Assessment
  • Regular Pest Audits

What Are Mosquitoes?

The name mosquito comes from a Spanish word meaning "little fly." Many people believe that the reason mosquitoes bite humans is because they need to feed on human blood, but this is not true. Mosquitoes feed on plant nectar, similarly to bees. Female mosquitoes suck blood in order to help with the development of their eggs prior to laying them. Male mosquitoes do not feed on blood at all. Although mosquitoes can be very annoying to humans and at times dangerous because of their ability to carry and transmit diseases, they play an important role in the ecosystem because they serve as a food source for many organisms.

MOSQUITO INFESTATION

Mosquitoes live in a variety of habitats, but they are mainly concentrated near sources of standing water in order to reproduce because mosquito eggs need water in order to hatch. Some species lay their eggs in standing water, while other simply lay their eggs in moist soil and then hatch once the soil is flooded with water. These "floodwater" species lay eggs in the fall that can survive through the winter and then hatch once spring showers flood their habits. One female mosquito can lay up to 200 eggs at a time, which can allow for an infestation to quickly get out of hand.

MOSQUITO BITES & TREATMENT

Generally, mosquito bites simply appear as a small itchy bump, but some people can have more intense reactions to the bites if they are allergic. Although a mosquito bite itself is harmless, mosquitoes are capable of transmitting serious diseases through these bites, such as malaria, yellow fever and West Nile virus. Because of the risk, it is always smart to use insect repellant when outside in order to prevent mosquito bites. If at any time you feel that the bite is serious, seek medical help as soon as possible.

DENGUE MOSQUITOES

INTRODUCTION

The risk of contracting dengue infection has increased dramatically since the 1940s. This upward trend is due to increases in long-distance travel, population growth and urbanization, lack of sanitation, ineffective mosquito control, and increases in the surveillance and official reporting of dengue cases. Dengue has spread through Southeast Asia, the Pacific Island countries, and the Middle East. Today, approximately 40% of people live in regions of the world where there is a risk of contracting dengue. Dengue is an endemic disease, which means that it occurs regularly, in tropical regions of the world. The disease is endemic in more than one hundred countries in Africa, the Americas, Asia, the Caribbean, and the Pacific. How does dengue spread, and how is this disease transmitted to humans?

HOW DOES DENGUE SPREAD?

The dengue virus is transmitted to humans via the bite of an infected mosquito. Only a few mosquito species are vectors for the dengue virus. What is a vector? A vector is a vehicle that carries and transmits a disease to its host organism. Vectors include animals and microorganisms that transmit different diseases. The most common vectors are arthropods, which are invertebrate animals with an external skeleton called an exoskeleton. Arthropods include mosquitoes, ticks, lice, flies, and fleas. For instance, ticks can carry Lyme disease, and some mosquitoes can carry yellow fever, malaria, and dengue fever.

When a mosquito bites a person who has dengue virus in his or her blood, the mosquito becomes infected with the dengue virus. An infected mosquito can later transmit that virus to healthy people by biting them. Dengue cannot be spread directly from one person to another, and mosquitoes are necessary for transmission of the dengue virus.

AEDES MOSQUITOES

Can any type of mosquito carry dengue? The dengue virus is carried and spread by mosquitoes in the genus Aedes, which includes a number of mosquito species. Of these species, the primary vector of the dengue virus is the species Aedes aegypti. It is the principal dengue vector responsible for dengue transmission and dengue epidemics. Other mosquito species in the genus Aedes — including Aedes albopictusAedes polynesiensis, and Aedes scutellaris — have a limited ability to serve as dengue vectors.Aedes aegypti is a small, dark mosquito that can be identified by the white bands on its legs and a silver-white pattern of scales on its body that looks like an ancient Greek musical instrument called a lyre (Figure 1). Where are these mosquitoes found? Aedes aegypti dwell in tropical and subtropical regions all over the world, mainly between the latitudes of 35°N and 35°S where the winter temperature is no colder than 10°C. Although some mosquitoes may travel farther north or south of these latitudes, they are unable to survive cold winters. Because Aedes aegypti require a warm climate, they typically do not live at altitudes above 1000 m, where the temperature is colder. These mosquitoes are associated with the living spaces of humans. They generally spend their entire lives in and around the houses where their eggs hatched.

HOW IS DENGUE TRANSMITTED TO HUMANS?

Figure 2: Dengue transmission

The dengue virus is spread through a human-to-mosquito-to-human cycle of transmission (Figure 2). Typically, four days after being bit by an infected Aedes aegypti mosquito, a person will develop viremia, a condition in which there is a high level of the dengue virus in the blood. Viremia lasts for approximately five days, but can last as long as twelve days. On the first day of viremia, the person generally shows no symptoms of dengue. Five days after being bit by the infected mosquito, the person develops symptoms of dengue fever, which can last for a week or longer.

How does an Aedes aegypti mosquito become a dengue vector? After a mosquito feeds on the blood of someone infected with the dengue virus, that mosquito becomes a dengue vector. The mosquito must take its blood meal during the period of viremia, when the infected person has high levels of the dengue virus in the blood. Once the virus enters the mosquito's system in the blood meal, the virus spreads through the mosquito's body over a period of eight to twelve days. After this period, the infected mosquito can transmit the dengue virus to another person while feeding. Does a mosquito infected with the dengue virus only transmit the virus to the next person it feeds on? No, once infected with dengue, the mosquito will remain infected with the virus for its entire life. Infected mosquitoes can continue transmitting the dengue virus to healthy people for the rest of their life spans, generally a three- to four-week period.

Both male and female mosquitoes feed on plant nectars, fruit juices, and other plants sugars as their main energy source. Why, then, do mosquitoes bite humans? Female mosquitoes require blood to produce eggs, so they bite humans. Each female mosquito can lay multiple batches of eggs during its lifetime, and often Aedes aegypti take several blood meals before laying a batch of eggs. When a female mosquito is infected with the dengue virus, the virus is present in its salivary glands. How does the virus travel from the mosquito's salivary glands into a human? When taking a blood meal, an infected female mosquito injects its saliva into the human host to prevent the host's blood from clotting and to ease feeding. This injection of saliva infects the host with the dengue virus.

Are mosquito bites the only way the dengue virus can be transmitted to humans? In rare events, dengue can be transmitted during organ transplantations or blood transfusions from infected donors. There is also evidence that an infected pregnant mother can transmit the dengue virus to her fetus. Despite these rare events, the majority of dengue infections are transmitted by mosquito bites.

DENGUE MOSQUITO LIFE CYCLE

 

Figure 3: Aedes aegypti life cycle

Female Aedes aegypti commonly lay eggs on the inner walls of artificial containers. When the containers fill with water, mosquito larvae hatch from the eggs. After developing through four larval stages, the larvae metamorphose into pupas. Like the larval stage, the pupal stage is also aquatic. After two days, a fully developed adult mosquito forms and breaks through the skin of the pupa. The adult mosquito can fly and has a terrestrial habitat.

What are the life stages of mosquitoes? Mosquitoes have a complicated life cycle (Figure 3). As they develop, mosquitoes change their shapes and habitats. Female mosquitoes generally lay their eggs above the water line inside containers that hold water. These containers include tires, buckets, birdbaths, water storage jars, and flower pots. Mosquito larvae hatch from the eggs when the containers fill with water, in many cases after a rainfall. The larvae are aquatic, meaning that they live in the water and feed on microorganisms found in the water. Larvae go through developmental stages in which they molt, or shed their skin, three times. These larval stages are called the first to fourth instars. When a larva is a fully grown fourth instar, it undergoes metamorphosis into a new form called a pupa, the "cocoon" stage for the mosquito. This stage of the mosquito's life is also aquatic. After two days, the fully developed adult mosquito forms and breaks through the skin of the pupa. The adult mosquito is able to fly and is no longer aquatic. It has a terrestrial habitat.

What happens if there is no rain? Aedes aegypti mosquitoes have adapted so that their eggs can survive dry conditions for several months. If eggs are laid in a dry container, new mosquitoes only develop when the container is filled with water. This adaptation has made it very difficult to eliminate mosquito populations completely. In many areas of the world, dengue outbreaks occur every year during the rainy season, when conditions are perfect for mosquito breeding. Dengue can pose a particular threat in highly populated regions because epidemics are more likely where there are large numbers of people in contact with large numbers of mosquito vectors than in more isolated areas. In countries in the equatorial zone that experience tropical monsoon seasons — such as Indonesia, India, Brazil, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Myanmar — dengue epidemics are a serious public health problem.

 SYMPTOMS

Many people, especially children and teens, may experience no signs or symptoms during a mild case of dengue fever. When symptoms do occur, they usually begin four to 10 days after you are bitten by an infected mosquito. Signs and symptoms of dengue fever most commonly include:

  • Fever, as high as 106 F (41 C)
  • Headaches
  • Muscle, bone and joint pain
  • Pain behind your eyes

You might also experience:

  • Widespread rash
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Rarely, minor bleeding from your gums or nose

Most people recover within a week or so. In some cases, symptoms worsen and can become life-threatening. Blood vessels often become damaged and leaky. And the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your bloodstream drops. This can cause:

  • Bleeding from your nose and mouth
  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Persistent vomiting
  • Bleeding under the skin, which might look like bruising
  • Problems with your lungs, liver and heart

WHEN TO SEE A DOCTOR

If you've recently visited a region in which dengue fever is known to occur and you suddenly develop a fever, see your doctor.

PREVENTION

Six dengue fever vaccines are in development, but not yet available. The vaccine that's furthest in development is a three-dose vaccine for children. The results of a phase III trial were published in July 2014. This study showed that the vaccine appears to be safe, and it prevented dengue infections slightly more than half the time.

Those who had the vaccine but still became infected with dengue had a milder course of the disease than did those who weren't vaccinated. Although the vaccine is not as effective as doctors would like, it is safe. The company that makes this vaccine hasn't yet announced any plans to seek approval to market the vaccine.

So for now, if you're living or traveling in an area where dengue fever is known to be, the best way to avoid dengue fever is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes that carry the disease.

If you are living or traveling in tropical areas where dengue fever is common, these tips may help reduce your risk of mosquito bites:

 

  • Stay in air-conditioned or well-screened housing. The mosquitoes that carry the dengue viruses are most active from dawn to dusk, but they can also bite at night.
  • Wear protective clothing. When you go into mosquito-infested areas, wear a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, socks and shoes.
  • Use mosquito repellent. Permethrin can be applied to your clothing, shoes, camping gear and bed netting. You can also buy clothing made with permethrin already in it. For your skin, use a repellent containing at least a 10 percent concentration of DEET.
  • Reduce mosquito habitat. The mosquitoes that carry the dengue virus typically live in and around houses, breeding in standing water that can collect in such things as used automobile tires. Reduce the breeding habitat to lower mosquito populations.

 

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